The experiment pattern can help designers find ways to take advantage of hands-on learning.
This pattern appears in a curricular sequence of activities in the Learning by Design project Kolodner et al. Activities in this project interweave design and experimentation cycles. In the experimentation cycle, students begin by clarifying the question to be addressed and make a hypothesis. Then, they design the investigation by identifying conditions that need to be controlled, the variables that will be varied and their values, the steps to be carried out, the number of trials, and what to measure.
Finally, students carry out the investigation, record data, analyze results, and present their findings in a poster session Kolodner et al.
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To illustrate how the design principles and the design patterns approaches complement each other, in the following section we analyze a specific curricular unit in thermodynamics, using these two lenses. The juxtaposition of the two lenses highlights the different ways in which each of the approaches guides design of science curricula.
Alexa Mayo, M. The Team leveraged expertise at UMB and from contacts throughout Baltimore to enrich the students' learning experiences. These invited speakers contributed expertise not found in the Library faculty. Guest lecturers, for instance, included community organizers and UMB School of Law students who led a class on how to think about advocacy and how to write effective advocacy letters. Students in the School of Pharmacy participated in a field trip to CVS to discuss how to shop for over-the-counter products.
Members from community-based organizations made presentations to the students about the services they provided in the areas of homelessness, early childhood education, and more. Tapping into the expertise of the people most suited to deliver the message created energy around the project and enriched the curriculum with new voices and experiences.
Classroom learning was complemented by community-based experiential learning and social action projects. To design successful experiential learning opportunities throughout Baltimore, the Team needed to build upon existing community relationships and to develop new ones. From their work on previous outreach projects, the Team was able to build upon relationships with a variety of partners, including staff at homeless shelters, the Baltimore City Health Department, the University of Maryland Medical Center, and more. Student participation as exhibitors in a Baltimore Healthy Expo and field trips to community centers, a hospital, pharmacies, grocery stores, farmers' markets, an urban farm, and the NLM took careful planning with multiple partners to ensure that these active learning visits were successful.
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Each cohort of students engaged in more than 10 outreach events per year. In the second year of the program, students initiated, led, and planned a successful health fair at VTTMAA with over 15 exhibitors and student attendees. This social action project required the students to identify the exhibitors to participate in the fair, extend the invitation to attend, and manage the relationships.
Planning this high-profile event was an important exercise in collaboration for the students. It also provided the students with an opportunity to establish new connections and work with new partners. Through hands-on outreach events, students had a chance to apply their newly acquired advocacy skills toward promoting health at VTTMAA and in Baltimore neighborhoods. The Team was committed to creating a project that could be sustained and replicated. With this goal in mind, the Team designed an out-of-the-box-ready, modular curriculum that could be used anywhere in the nation.
In the third year of the project, the Team applied what they had learned from working directly with VTTMAA students to create an online curriculum. This freely available, web-based curriculum includes PowerPoint presentations, background readings, extracurricular learning activities, and social action projects. Each lesson's learning objectives aligned with National Health Education Standard objectives 8 and with selected objectives within Healthy People 's Adolescent Health topic. More than 12 faculty librarians participated in the curriculum development.
Lessons and modules were highly flexible and could be used stand-alone or in combination. Collaboration played a two-part role in the development of the online curriculum.
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First, a diverse group of instructors covering a broad range of topics worked together to create a content-rich curriculum that spoke with one voice. Participating in regular team meetings, the instructors discussed curriculum components, design, and organization. Second, the Team also recognized the importance of looking beyond the library staff including guest lecturers and other partners to contribute expertise and field knowledge. To convey the importance of collaboration to the curriculum, one of the important elements highlighted in each of the class lesson plans was a suggestion from the instructor about key partners to include in the classroom.
Ann-Louise de Boer, Theo J. We acknowledge that curriculum development per se is a specialised field with its own theoretical underpinning. However, it is included here with a view to indicating the position learning theories take in the curriculum. Learning theories inform curriculum development. In turn, curriculum development informs the application in practice of pertinent principles of learning theories as evident in different methods of facilitating learning. Moreover, the process of curriculum development per se reflects a constructivist approach. Curriculum development takes different forms at different higher education institutions such as universities.
Moreover, as higher education institutions differ vastly, they each would have their own curriculum development model that expects different actions when designing a curriculum, implementing it, evaluating it in a formative fashion, adapting it and eventually evaluating it summatively. As curriculum development is a scholarly act, action research is promoted as a useful process to design, implement, monitor and evaluate the curriculum.
The entire process of steps taken includes continuous scholarly reflection.
The responsibility of participating in curriculum development activities is, inter alia, to be found in the roles stipulated by the Norms and Standards for Educators Republic of South Africa, , which include design and implementing of programmes, courses or modules, or interpreting curricula. The latter is specifically applicable where a curriculum is mainly prescribed by a professional body, such as a body for the professional development of chartered accountants, or a body for the professional development of medical practitioners.
Such a programme consists of several modules. The curriculum development model the so-called cone model that has been in use at the University of Pretoria Kachelhoffer, Malan and Knoetze, for several years is currently revisited.
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It has since been adapted by a university of technology Masebe, to suit its specific context. Three levels of curriculum development activities are distinguished: the macro-level, meso-level and micro-level. The contribution the lecturer makes occurs at the micro-level and is informed by curriculum development activities at mid-level. Mid-level curriculum development activities are informed by activities on the macro-level. At this level, curriculum development activities by a constituted curriculum development committee revolve around needs analyses executed by a faculty, such as Health Sciences, by looking into relevant policies of a Health Sciences Council.
In the case of the professional development of medical practitioners, other similar health sciences programmes at local and international level can be studied. Applicable qualification frameworks and other policies should be adhered to.
Facilities, human resources and cost implications should be kept in mind, as well as the duration of studies for a qualification. At mid-level, the responsibility becomes that of the constituted curriculum development committee of a specific academic department or academic unit. The department is responsible for refining the needs analysis and for identifying and formulating overarching learning outcomes. This would inform the selection of modules.
Decisions regarding an overarching schedule and approaches to be included, such as service learning, should be stipulated and made. The micro-level curriculum development activities to be conducted by the individual lecturer include taking cognisance of the module expectations.
Learning outcomes are refined and inform the division of the module into different study units, while complementing assessment opportunities are identified. Based on the intended assessment practice, appropriate learning opportunities are planned.
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These include practicals and co-operative learning that would not only foster deep and authentic learning, but would also complement the learning outcomes. All aspects are combined and documented as a study manual per module — to promote communication between the lecturer and student. For each module a purpose statement is communicated.
In the case of modules that are integrated which we advocate since the world of work is integrated and not compartmentalised , one might find that a study manual consists of guidelines for more than one module. Again, depending on the specific context of a higher education institution, other types of learning material and documentation may be appropriate.
The process starts with the formulation or reformulation of learning outcomes that should ensure the promotion of deep, authentic learning. This can be achieved by including challenging learning outcomes that would expect students to demonstrate that they have followed an appropriate action learning process by documenting it as part of an assignment. It is clear that the applicable learning theory in question here is action learning.